Norman Endoscopy Center
Norman's Newest and Most Advanced Dedicated Endoscopy Center

Patient Education

The information provided is to give patients a basic knowledge.  The best source of information regarding your diagnosis is your physician.  For additional information, you may wish to contact your physician’s office and arrange for an office visit.

We have provided videos for the most common gastroenterology procedures and diseases. You may view the videos by clicking on the picture, which with open a new window to watch the video.

If you have been scheduled for an upcoming procedure, please view the appropriate video prior to your procedure. Thank you.

Who Should be Screened for Colon Cancer?

What is Colorectal Cancer? Colorectal cancer (also referred to as colon cancer) is a cancer that develops in the colon or the rectum. These parts of the digestive system are also called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The digestive system processes food for energy and rids the body of solid waste. Colorectal cancer usually develops slowly over a period of many years. Before a cancer develops, it usually begins as a non-cancerous polyp. A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue lining the colon or rectum. One specific type of polyp, called an adenoma, has the greatest risk of becoming a cancer. Once a colorectal cancer is found, the cancer must be staged. Staging tells your doctor and you if the cancer has spread from the original site to other parts of the body. It is important to...

Most Advanced Dedicated Endoscopy Center

Newest Norman Endoscopy Center opened in March 2009. Most Advanced Norman Endoscopy Center uses the Environ-Mate® Waste Disposal System which allows for biomedical waste to be discharged into the sanitary sewer system without the use of collection containers which require handling and storage and can pose a risk of contamination to employees. Norman Endoscopy Center is the first endoscopy center in Oklahoma to use the Environ-Mate® system. The system requires advanced planning and installation during the building process and cannot be “just added on.” Norman Endoscopy Center is the first endoscopy center in Norman to use full-time CRNAs (Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists) to administer anesthesia to patients to ensure their comfort. The CRNAs are...


What is colonoscopy? A colonoscopy allows a doctor to look inside the entire large intestine. The procedure enables the physician to see things such as inflamed tissue, abnormal growths, and ulcers. It is most often used to look for early signs of cancer in the colon and rectum. It is also used to look for causes of unexplained changes in bowel habits and to evaluate symptoms like abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. What is the colon? The colon, or large bowel, is the last portion of your digestive tract, or gastrointestinal tract. The colon is a hollow tube that starts at the end of the small intestine and ends at the rectum and anus. The colon is about 5 feet long, and its main function is to store unabsorbed food waste and absorb water and other body fluids...

Upper Endoscopy

What is endoscopy? Upper endoscopy enables the physician to look inside the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (first part of the small intestine). The procedure might be used to discover the reason for swallowing difficulties, nausea, vomiting, reflux, bleeding, indigestion, abdominal pain, or chest pain. Upper endoscopy is also called EGD, which stands for esophagogastroduodenoscopy. What is the procedure like? For the procedure you will swallow a thin, flexible, lighted tube called an endoscope. Right before the procedure the physician will spray your throat with a numbing agent that may help prevent gagging. You may also receive pain medicine and a sedative to help you relax during the exam. The endoscope  transmits an image of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and...

Diseases and Conditions

Barrett's Esophagus

Barrett's esophagus is a condition resulting from ongoing irritation of the esophagus where its lining is replaced by the type of lining that is normally found in the stomach. Patients with Barrett's esophagus lack symptoms that are noticeably different from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the underlying irritation in most cases.

Colon Polyps

A polyp in the colon can be defined as any extra tissue that protrudes into the inside (or lumen) of the large intestine (colon), but typically refers to excess of the lining (epithelium). They vary in size from microscopic to several inches in diameter.


Constipation means that a person has three bowel movements or fewer in a week. The stool is hard and dry. Sometimes it is painful to pass. You may feel 'draggy' and full. Some people think they should have a bowel movement every day. That is not really true. There is no 'right' number of bowel movements. Each person's body finds its own normal number of bowel movements. It depends on the food you eat, how much you exercise, and other things. At one time or another, almost everyone gets constipated. In most cases, it lasts for a short time and is not serious.When you understand what causes constipation, you can take steps to prevent it.

Crohn's Disease

Crohn's disease causes inflammation of parts of the digestive tract. Inflammation is irritation and swelling. The inflammation, mostly caused by sores called ulcers, can cause pain and diarrhea. The digestive tract is the pathway food travels through in the body. This pathway is also called the gastrointestinal, or GI, tract. It goes from the mouth to the anus. Crohn's disease can sometimes be hard to diagnose because its symptoms are like the symptoms of other GI diseases. Crohn's disease can affect any area of the GI tract, but it most often affects a part of the small intestine called the ileum.

Diverticular Disease

Diverticular disease affects the colon. The colon is part of the large intestine that removes waste from your body. Diverticular disease is made up of two conditions: diverticulosis and diverticulitis. Diverticulosis occurs when pouches, called diverticula, form in the colon. These pouches bulge out like weak spots in a tire. Diverticulitis occurs if the pouches become inflamed.

GERD - Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) is a common condition involving the esophagus (the muscular tube that connects the back of the mouth to the stomach) that can occur at any age, but typically begins to appear around age 40. Many people refer to this disorder as heartburn or indigestion. GERD is caused when the muscular valve at the lower end of the esophagus relaxes, allowing the contents of the stomach to backwash, or reflux, into the esophagus. These gastric contents contain strong acids and bile that are very irritating to the lining of the esophagus.


The term hemorrhoids refers to a condition in which the veins around the anus or lower rectum are swollen and inflamed. Hemorrhoids may result from straining to move stool. Other contributing factors include pregnancy, aging, chronic constipation or diarrhea, and anal intercourse. Hemorrhoids are either inside the anus - internal - or under the skin around the anus - external.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

IBS is a functional disorder of the digestive system; that is, it is an abnormality in the way the gut normally functions, but does not have a known specific structural or biochemical alteration. It is sometimes referred to as spastic colon, mucous colitis, spastic colitis, nervous stomach, or irritable colon. Approximately 10-15% of Americans suffer with this disorder, and it is the most common diagnosis made by gastroenterologists. Patients experience a variety of symptoms, particularly abdominal discomfort and a modification of bowel habits. Some people experience constipation, others experience diarrhea, still others experience alternating constipation and diarrhea.

Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a disease that causes inflammation and sores, called ulcers, in the lining of the rectum and colon. Ulcers form where inflammation has killed the cells that usually line the colon, then bleed and produce pus. Inflammation in the colon also causes the colon to empty frequently, causing diarrhea.

Diets and Food Regimens

Anti-reflux Regimen

Reflux Esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagus (swallowing tube) caused by acid which spills back up from the stomach into the esophagus, irritating it. It can cause heartburn, painful swallowing and even permanent damage to the esophagus.

Clear Liquid Diet

A clear liquid diet is made up of clear liquids and foods that are liquid at room temperature. A clear liquid diet does not provide all the nutrients, vitamins, minerals, or calories that your body needs. This diet may be used before a test or surgery to make sure your digestive tract is empty. You may also need this diet after stomach or bowel (small and large intestines) surgery, or if you have problems with eating solid food. The goal of this diet is to provide liquids and part of the calories you need until you can eat solid food. Clear liquids are easily digested and do not put a strain on your stomach or intestines.

Dysphagia Diet

Dysphagia refers to a difficulty in swallowing or having pain during food swallowing. Dysphagia can be caused by a variety conditions. The symptoms can range from mild pain to severe swallowing difficulties and can occur in any age group.

Fiber Content in Foods

Use the chart below to find the fiber content of many common foods.

Gluten Free Diet

The gluten free diet is used in the treatment of celiac sprue and dermatitis herpetiformis. Although a gluten free diet does not cure celiac sprue and dermatitis herpetiformis, following the diet will relieve the symptoms associated with gluten sensitivity.

High-fiber High-residue Diet

The high fiber-high residue diet follows the normal dietary pattern except for the inclusion of high fiber, high residue foods. Dietary fiber is defined by Robinson as the seeds, skins, and structural parts of plant foods and the connective tissue fibers of meats. Cellulose, hemi cellulose, lignin, pectin, and inulin are not hydrolyzed by the enzymes in human digestive tract. Residue is defined as the volume of material remaining after the digestive process has been completed.

Low-fat Diet

In general, Americans eat too much dietary fat. Most Americans would benefit from a low fat diet. Physicians may recommend a low-fat diet for a number of reasons, i.e. high cholesterol, heart disease, weight loss, diarrhea, malabsorption.

Low-fiber, Low-residue Diet

The low fiber diet follows the normal dietary pattern except for the omission of high fiber foods. Dietary fiber is defined as skins, seeds, structural parts of plants and connective tissue fibers of meats. Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, and inulin are not hydrolyzed by enzymes in the human digestive tract.

Soft Diet

A soft diet generally eliminates foods that are difficult to chew or swallow, and also spicy, fried, or grassy foods. A mechanical soft diet simply eliminates foods that are difficult to chew or swallow.

Soft Mechanical Diet

A soft mechanical diet generally eliminates foods that are difficult to chew or swallow. This diet is used for people who have difficulty chewing or swallowing, but are more able to tolerate foods that are semi-solid. Foods permitted on a soft mechanical diet must be naturally soft or able to be mashed to achieve a soft consistency.

Gastrointestinal Links

Gastrointestinal-related Links

Visit the websites below, but remember, your doctor is always your best source for health information.

AAAHC - Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care, Inc

ACG - American College of Gastroenterology

AGA - American Gastroenterological Association

The AGA website includes information for physicians and people with UC. The "Patient Center" links to web casts, downloadable brochures, and physician-run UC blogs.

American Cancer Society

American Dietetic Association

American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

ASGE - American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Celiac Disease Foundation

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

Look here for listings of local events and suggestions on how to connect with others who share your interest in Ulcerative Colitis.

Healthline (general medical information website)

National Cancer Institute

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Oklahoma Celiac Support Group

Oklahoma City County Health Department

County Health Promotion Health at Work OKC

Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates, Inc.

The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse

The Web site contains a comprehensive overview of UC and links to clinical trial Web sites.

U.S. National Library of Medicine

United Ostomy Associations of American, Inc.